The History of Casper – Chapter 2

This chapter describes the game theory and economic security modelling we were doing in the Fall of 2014. It recounts how the “bribing attacker model” led our research directly to a radical solution to the long range attack problem. Chapter 2: The Bribing Attacker, Economic Security, and the Long Range... [Read More]

The History of Casper — Chapter 1

Vitalik suggested last week that I share my basic research and design philosophy in a blog post, I agreed but complained that it was still changing. My friend Jon West told me that everyone would really appreciate it if I told everyone about my Casper research, I mostly agreed. Then... [Read More]

zkSNARKs in a nutshell

The possibilities of zkSNARKs are impressive, you can verify the correctness of computations without having to execute them and you will not even learn what was executed - just that it was done correctly. Unfortunately, most explanations of zkSNARKs resort to hand-waving at some point and thus they remain something... [Read More]

Ethereum Research Update

This week marks the completion of our fourth hard fork, Spurious Dragon, and the subsequent state clearing process, the final steps in the two-hard-fork solution to the recent Ethereum denial of service attacks that slowed down the network in September and October. Gas limits are in the process of being increased to... [Read More]

Security alert [11/24/2016]: Consensus bug in geth v1.4.19 and v1.5.2

Security Alert Affected configurations: Geth Severity: High Summary:  An issue has been identified with Geth’s journaling mechanism. This caused a network fork at block #2686351 (Nov-24-2016 14:12:07 UTC). The new Geth release 1.5.3 fixes the journaling issue and repairs the fork. [Read More]